2014 June Baker Higgins Conference: Women Mentors
Proposals, Abstracts and Submissions

  1. Enhancing Ability To Care For Women Within The Culture Of Incarceration
    Stacy E Christensen DNP, APRN, CCHP Central Connecticut State University

  2. Midlife Motherhood: The Newest Chapter in the Women’s Movement
    Cyma Shapiro, Midlife Mothers
    Short Abstract

  3. Victims’ Perceived Effectiveness of Different Reasons for Staying in Violent Relationships: Rationale Uses for Self and Others
    Jessica J. Eckstein, Ph.D. Western Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

  4. Stigmatizing Men as Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Exploring Categories of Societally Gendered Identity Characteristics
    Jessica J. Eckstein Ph.D. and Jessica Cherry, Western Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

  5. The Many Mentors in My Life
    Darla Shaw Ph. D., Bonnie Rabe Ph. D., Catherine O’Callaghan Ph. D., Western Connecticut State University
    Jeannie Hatcherson Ph. D., Lorien Crow, and Elizabeth Fanfarillo, Wesleyan University
    Long Abstract

  6. Standard Candles in a Variable Universe: Women-Women Mentoring In the American Association of Variable Star Observers
    Kristine Larsen Ph. D. Central Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

  7. Correlations between sexual debut within a relationship and relationship and sexual satisfaction in college students
    Jaclyn Vancour, Central Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

  8. Women’s Grassroots Activism in Contemporary Peru
    Emilie Egger, Sarah Lawrence College
    Short Abstract

  9. Between “Asking for It” and “Up for It”: Empowerment, Sexualized Femininity and Violence Against Women in the Age of Post Feminism
    Kathryn Frazier, Clark University
    Short Abstract

  10. Perceptions of Construction Management in a Secondary School System
    Joseph A. Raiola and Jacob Kovel Ph. D., Central Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

  11. The Central Reproductive Rights Issue: Birth in the US Today and Why You Should Care
    Maura Jo Lynch, MA, CD, CCCE and Christan Moran, MA, JD
    Short Abstract

  12. Do mean girls and bully boys grow up to be abusers in the workplace?
    Mary Beth Nelson, Co- Coordinator, Connecticut Healthy Workplace Advocates
    Long Abstract

  13. Theorizing the Celebrity News Fix
    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.d, Central Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

  14. Gender and Type 1 Credit Rationing of Small Businesses in the U. S.
    Naranchimeg Mijid, Ph. D., Central Connecticut State University
    Short Abstract

Enhancing Ability to Care for Women within the Culture of Incarceration

Stacy Christensen, DNP, APRN, CCHP
Submission, June Baker Higgins Conference
Short Abstract

Incarcerated women are a highly vulnerable population, most of which have had extremely adverse life experiences. Nurses and other social service professionals who work in corrections have significant challenges as they attempt to care in a setting that is focused on punishment. This paper focuses on the unique culture of incarceration as it applies to women, along with the common challenges faced when caring for these women. Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care and the Sunrise Enabler are discussed as useful tools to assist individuals in providing culture care within the confines of the prison, as well as a means of understanding these women as cultural beings apart from the prison setting. Despite the many security restrictions that exist within the correctional environment, “care” can be provided regardless of setting. A model case has been developed to show the positive impact that culture care can have on the lives of many women who face incarceration.

Midlife Motherhood: The Newest Chapter in the Women’s Movement
(Rethinking the Family Model for the 21st century)

Cyma Shapiro
Proposal for June Baker Higgins Conference
A Panel Discussion
Short Abstract

Midlife. Motherhood. Until recently, the two words were never conjoined. Midlife was intended for reinvention, reexamination and retirement. Motherhood was for the young.
Today, mothers over 40 (Midlife Mothering/new older motherhood) account for more than 100,000 births each year and tens of thousands of (aggregate numbers of) surrogate births, adoptions, fosterings and guardianships. Midlife Mothering is both a household word and a bourgeoning phenomenon spurred on by a Zeitgest of the times - continuous breakthroughs in medical technologies, socio-economic freedoms for women and a breakdown of the traditional family model.
I (coined and) define Midlife motherhood as the conscious choice (hence, the over-40 age) to pursue a sometimes unchartered path despite the physical, emotional, psychological, spiritual and financial costs. This is about strength, guidance, conviction, perseverance, determination, willpower and a breaking down of societal beliefs and obstacles. This is also about love and life choices and the pursuit of motherhood, at whatever age feels right.
Issues addressed will include peri/menopause, aging bodies, aging/dying parents, multiple children in multiple generations and family units. We are the amalgam of a series of experiences which led us to choose this path.
I will pursue the questions: Why and how did you do this? What did you need to do this? How did you feel? How did your family and friends feel? Were you to live your life over again, would you do it this way? What do you feel about new older mothering?
Now, past mid-life, I will include: What was I thinking?

Cyma Shapiro, 56, is the writer/creator of NURTURE: Stories of New Midlife Mothers, the first art gallery show dedicated to women choosing motherhood over 40, and the blogsite, www.MotheringintheMiddle.com, for all-things midlife mothers. A Huffington Post contributor, writer, and speaker, whose work has been featured on NPR and on Psychology Today (online), Cyma is passionate about supporting women who choose later motherhood, and giving them a face, voice, and forum. She is the mother of 9 and 11-year-old children and 28 and 30-year-old stepchildren. She recently published The Zen of Midlife Mothering - the only anthology by and for midlife mothers currently on the market.

Single mother Michelle Meyer, 55, with (domestic) adopted son, Isaiah, 10.
Award-winning photographer and writer Shana Sureck, 53, is the mother of a 12-year-old daughter, Tali, conceived by sperm donation. She married her partner two years ago and is now also the stepmother to two sons.

Monique Faison Ross, 48, is a worker's compensation manager, and a mother to four children ranging in age from 10 -27. After two failed marriages, she married her wife last year. She is currently writing a memoir.
Clinical Nurse Educator Annie Worshoufsky MacAulay, 52, is the mother of four children ranging in age from 22-27 and a mom to a 4-yr-old son, with her wife of four years.

Victims’ Perceived Effectiveness of Different ‘Reasons for Staying’ in Violent Relationships:
Rationale Uses for Self and Others

Jessica J. Eckstein, Ph.D.
Western Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

Research on why people remain with abusive partners is typically based on clinicians’ reports of their experiences with victims. To extend beyond professionals’ reports, this study examined reasons for staying in intimate partner violence (IPV) relationships from victims’ perspectives. Self-report data from 454 diverse (n = 310 women, 144 men) victims revealed certain types of messages perceived as more/less effective than others. Reasons were further distinguished by intended targets – to themselves (e.g., theorized as identity-maintenance, coping, reassurance) and/or others (e.g., theorized as rationalization, stigma management). This empirical report concludes with an application to theoretical and applied research perspectives on communication regarding stay/leave decisions in IPV relationships.

Stigmatizing Men as Victims of Intimate Partner Violence:
Exploring Categories of Societally Gendered Identity Characteristics

Jessica Cherry
Western Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

More often theorized as an explanatory mechanism (rather than explicitly tested as such), societal stigma toward male IPV victims is purported to result from cultural messages valuing masculinity and suppression of weakness in men. To test these assumptions, a cross-sample of men and women (N > 2,000 representing diverse age groups and geographic U.S. regions) completed an assessment of attitudes toward a hypothetical “male friend abused by his female romantic partner.” The characteristics that were discovered from the responses comprised 11 categories of stigmatization, based primarily on gender stereotypes and systems of power in our society. Findings are discussed in terms of applications to victims, societal “others,” and implications for larger societal institutions and theories of gender socialization.

The Many Mentors in My Life
Everyone Needs At Least One Person In Their Life To Show Them The Way.

Darla Shaw, Ph.D
Professor of Education and Women’s Studies
Western Connecticut State University
Long Abstract

I have been so fortunate to have so many mentors in my life; mentors that have completely changed my life, mentors that I have trained and mentors that I have yet to meet.

For my presentation I would talk briefly about the first six mentors in my life: My father who constantly told me in the 1930’s that there was nothing I could not do. A fellow teacher, Al Cullum, who showed me that you must always engage students in their learning and allow them to teach you. An administrator, Joseph Leheny, who believed enough in me to give me the first woman’s administrative position in Ridgefield, Ct,. Dr. Jane Goodall, who I worked with during the summer of 1999. She showed me that volunteering is good, but starting your own volunteering project based on a real need, is even better. Dr. Jeanne Hatcherson, my humanitarian travel partner, who took me to fifteen third world countries and demonstrated that I could make a difference in literacy and women’s studies anywhere. Dr. Scott Russell, the national spokesperson for early onset Alzheimer’s, who showed me how to make a difference in the world when dealing with children and the knowledge of a difficult disease.

Mentoring Programs

The second part of my presentation would be on projects that I have initiated on my own dealing with mentoring and those that are commonly known and of which I have been a part.

The Danbury Mentoring Program. Professionals come to school to work with the selected students during their lunch hour once a week. They talk, have a snack together, play a game, take a walk, journal together or plan an outside activity.

Specific Career Mentor: I am listed in a brochure for someone who wants a mentor in higher education. From time to time I mentor people on line or over the phone who want to work with me.

Programs I Have Initiated

Brown Bag Mentoring Program. Once every week I set aside a time from noon to 1 p.m. when I am available in the fishbowl area of my building to meet with students who are interested in leadership and growth. Sometimes I have one or two students, sometimes as many as eight or ten. We talk informally about what we can do to build our self confidence, ability to communicate, and skill base.

Senior Mentoring Program. For the past six years I have paired students in the South Street School fifth grade and Senior Citizens at Elmwood Senior Center near by. Once a month, each fifth grader meets with his senior mentor for story telling, taking of oral histories, planting of our garden, working on our combined talent shows, taking pictures for our photo album, etc. This is a fabulous intergenerational program.

Danbury Area Mentor of the Year Program. Six years ago I started this program to reward an outstanding woman in the Danbury area who has mentored many others in the community in regard to a particular area of expertise or in life in general. This year’s recipient is a young woman who started her own Grass Roots Tennis/Academic Program for underprivileged youth in Danbury. Students play tennis three or four hours a week but work with her and her volunteers 10 hours weekly on academics, nutrition and exercise.

Mentoring for Graduation at TBICO, the Women’s Career Center. Two years ago I went to the TBICO graduation for women who had been out of the work force and needed to return. None of the women in the group spoke at graduation. Only the teachers spoke. I decided to mentor each of the graduates in organizing, writing and giving a speech at graduation. Now each graduation is composed of every student speaking and reflecting on their experiences. The graduation ceremony has been greatly enriched.

Mentoring at the Women’s Center. Instead of the usual counseling programs at the Women’s Centers, I decided to start a Women’s Studies Program at the Danbury Women’s Center. In this way myself and volunteers could act as mentors while still teaching women about women’s history and the roles they play in the process. This program has been extremely successful and we have a waiting list to get into the program.

Alumni Mentoring Student Teachers; Eight years ago I started a program where our student teachers can ask for a retired teacher to mentor them through the student teaching process. When the supervising and cooperating teacher are involved students are not always comfortable being completely honest about their problems. When a mentor is there, they can talk freely about their concerns and learn from the retired mentor. Retired teachers come to my classroom to speak before pairs are developed.

On line mentoring for teachers; Since I teach both undergraduates and graduates, I like to link my two populations to help the student teachers. I like to link the pre-service teacher to a graduate student in regard to the Common Core, lesson planning, classroom management, special issues, etc. The two people meet in person for the first graduate class and the last graduate class and find that a real bond can be developed. We also find jobs through this mentoring process.

Mentor in Our Life Blog: As part of the Women’s Center Program, we have started to blog and write on the Mentor in My Life. So many women owe so much to other women or men who have helped to change their lives. This is a work in progress, but a very exciting one. We hope to be published by summer. The stories are very inspirational. This month during Women’s History Month we will form a panel to speak on mentoring. The stories will come from our blog.

We Stand On the Shoulders of Those Who Came Before Us; We are also starting an art mural at the Women’s Center of the women who have mentored and come before us and are helping us to find our way. Along with the mural will be a booklet that talks about each woman who is pictured in the mural.

Education Club Members Mentor New Members; As new members become Education Club Members as freshman and sophomores, we immediately pair them up with an older, more experienced member ( almost like in the little brother program). The two sit together at meetings, are on most of the same committees and form a strong bond which later results in leadership and collaboration. The Ed. Club has grown much stronger through this process.

Pre Service Students Mentor Alternative School Students; The Danbury Alternative School is located next to our university. For this reason I have paired our secondary pre-service students with ACE students to act as mentors. My students must meet with their ACE counterpart at least once a week, keep a journal on the project they are working on, events they have taken them to on campus, and service projects on which they are both working. The project is part of my actual teaching program, but just an elective component.

Ct. Hall of Fame Inductee Program for Mentors: We started this year having our women mentors from the Women’s Center and our student mentors from WCSU come to WCSU to view the induction into Ct. Women’s Hall of Fame. We made it a nice evening dinner and event for the mentors and the students they were mentors for. It was a wonderful event and will be continued next year and greatly expanded.


I would close the session with examples from people in the group who have been lead by a strong mentor.
I would hand out quotation sheets regarding saying about mentors and the impact they have on our lives.

Standard Candles in a Variable Universe:
Women-Women Mentoring In the American Association of Variable Star Observers

Kristine Larsen Ph.D.
Central Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

The division between professional and amateur astronomers became well defined in the 19th century; however, unlike in most scientific fields, amateurs continue to this day to work closely with professionals and to contribute important observations to the field, especially in certain labor-intensive fields. This pro-am cooperation became codified in a number of scientific organizations, including the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). Such organizations also tended to attract a relatively large number of women, and afforded women access to positions of power within these organizations. Within the AAVSO, the tradition of women-women mentorships was especially strong, and not only led many women to rise to the highest echelons in both the day-to-day administration and membership (officers council) of the organization, but established a process by which women could be brought into the organization, trained in the specifics of both the science and administration, and eventually succeed their mentors at the helm.. Without the continuity provided by a network of strong, dedicated women who had mentored each other and assured the growth of the younger women into effective leaders, the organization might not have celebrated its centenary in 2011. This poster will provide an overview of the AAVSO’s history and explore how this women-women mentoring was established, and how it has played a vital role in the success of the organization.

Correlations Between Sexual Debut Within A Relationship And Relationship And Sexual Satisfaction In College Students

Jaclyn Vancour
Central Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

This study examines correlations between sexual debut within a relationship and relationship and sexual satisfaction in college students. Gender differences are also examined. Past research is either out of date or has come to different conclusions, therefore warranting further research into this topic. Participants consisted of 100 undergraduates who reported currently being or having been in an intimate romantic relationship. I measured relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction levels by using three valid and reliable measures. Couples who had sex later on in a relationship reported higher levels of relationship satisfaction than couples who had sex earlier in their relationships. There was marginal significance with sexual satisfaction. Men and women had similar satisfaction rates. To gain better insight on these correlations, future research should include more diverse samples with greater relationship variability.
Keywords: sexual debut, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, gender differences.

Women’s Grassroots Activism in Contemporary Peru

Emilie Egger
Sarah Lawrence College
Short Abstract

In this presentation I will discuss the contemporary women­centered and women­led activismthat has emerged in the aftermath of coerced family­limitation policies implemented between 1996 and2000 in Cusco, Peru. My research is based on conversations among Peruvian women, focusing on theiractivism that addresses issues of reproductive and human­rights abuses of the Fujimori Administration.The activists I discuss include women on whom family­limitation measures were enacted, alliesof these women, and the whistleblowers who first reported these practices. Their many projects includecampaigns for legislative protections of women’s rights, the collection of testimonies of women affectedby reproductive­rights abuses, artistic and public­interest projects, and many other undertakings. Muchof this activism is part of a larger Latin American network of grassroots involvement on women’s rights.I will present this discussion in the context of the history of Cusco, especially the layeredreligious and social conceptions of Cusquena women. I will argue that the layered perceptions ofmotherhood and gender across economic and social class played a role in the enforcement offamily­limitation policies in the late 1990s, as well as in how the subsequent activism has been enacted inCusco and how it is perceived by Peruvians and the rest of the world.I will also engage discussions of activism proposed by other historians of family limitation andreproductive abuse during the 20th century, as well as discussions of the role of women in the Fujimoriadministration in Peru in the final years of the 20th century.

Between “Asking for It” and “Up for It”: Empowerment, Sexualized Femininity and Violence Against Women in the Age of Post Feminism

Kathryn Frazier
Clark University
Short Abstract

Young women in the United States receive many messages about the appropriate way to be a ‘good’ or ‘empowered’ woman. For example, young women who have come of age since the 1980s, or what has been deemed the "postfeminist" society, are encouraged to embrace their femininity and sexuality (e.g., Gill, 2007). Images of highly sexualized women are displayed and idealized at all levels of society as representative of the ‘new’ women’s empowerment. The ways in which the pressures to exemplify this “sexy” empowered femininity influence women’s actions and choices have been explored in a number of contexts. One context that has yet to be explored is that of violence prevention. While young women receive pressure to enact “sexy” displays of femininity, social messages around violence prevention (particularly sexual assault) encourage women to carefully select their clothing, manage their appearance and bodies, and to actively avoid any bodily displays that might be read as "sexy". These safety practices are often framed as being empowering for women, allowing them a degree of personal agency in violence prevention. Women’s bodies are therefore central sites of tension as the ways in which women are expected to display their bodies and sexualities in contexts of risk, safety and violence are at odds with the sexy images that pervade society. Faced with these conflicting ideas about what an empowered woman does with her body, how do young women make meaning of their embodied experiences and expression of femininity in contexts of risk, violence and victimization? This in-depth qualitative study of 25 women aged 18-35 explores the extent to which women recognize this tension and the ways it emerges as they discuss personal experiences related to safety concerns, risk and violence.

In semi-structured interviews, women were asked about their ideas around femininity, sexuality and the ways that they value and display these constructs in their everyday lives. Women were also asked to discuss their thoughts and past experiences related to risk, violence and the safety practices in which they regularly engage. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was conducted to extract major patterns and differences in women’s reasoning about femininity and sexiness and the ways they related to empowerment and/or vulnerability for violence. A major tension in women’s femininity narratives emerged as women positioned themselves as invulnerable and agentive actors in attenuating risk, yet simultaneously constructed their feminine bodies as inherently and unavoidably at risk for violence. Interviewees actively worked to distance themselves from victimhood and the “other women” who occupy the position of (potential) victim, by disaggregating the category of “woman” from femininity, delegitimizing “woman” as a category of relevance for them, and (re)constructed femininity in terms of strength and individuality. In this way, younger women denied the relevance of violence prevention discourse for their everyday lives. Women of color were less likely to reproduce the tension between femininity and empowerment in their narratives suggesting that dominant messages equating femininity with sexiness and/or vulnerability for violence are most pervasive for white women, while women of color rely on alternative narratives of womanhood and strength. The endorsement of feminist ideology at times worked to also provide an alternative narrative of womanhood that was not opposed to strength, although this strategy was used inconsistently by women in the sample. Women’s differences in understanding violence, victimization and womanhood present a challenge to efforts to research and advocate around the topic of violence against women. Implications and future directions will be discussed.

Perceptions of Construction Management in a Secondary School System

Joseph A. Raiola and Jacob Kovel PhD
Central Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

This research is the second phase of research related to diversity in the construction management profession. The first research phase examined gender in the Construction industry; providing a comparison to enrollment at Central Connecticut State University and the Connecticut Technical High School system. In this second phase of research a survey was sent to the Connecticut Technical High School System. Perceptions of Construction Management were collected from instructors, school counselors and students with a goal of identifying perceptions of construction management based on gender and role within the school. It was found that the men’s and women’s surveyed had very similar responses with the exception of one question; can you become a construction manager? More men are strongly agreed with the statement than did women’s. This presentation of research in progress will examine these findings and suggest methods, potentially including some established construction management mentorship programs that may increase awareness of the Construction Management profession so that women can be better represented in the population of construction professionals.

The Central Reproductive Rights Issue:
Birth in the US Today and Why You Should Care

Maura Jo Lynch, MA, CD, CCCE and Christan Moran, MA, JD
Central Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

As Americans, we currently spend more on healthcare than any other nation in the world. This is a longstanding trend and holds true when it comes to Maternity/Gestational Care and Birth. One would expect, given this fact that our Maternal and Infant Mortality and Morbidity Rates would be among the lowest in the world. Not only is this not the case, but instead it is quite the opposite. Many do not realize the complex matrix that exists effectively hamstringing parents from making the very choices which are most likely to keep both birthing parent and baby safe, and often preventing birth attendants from providing care based in scientific, evidencebased, best care practices. Homebirth offers an increasingly popular alternative for those who are lowrisk. Awareness of this option, however, and access to it, is extremely limited for a variety of factors. In this panel/workshop, we will explore these issues and discuss how and why it is now vital to bring the core Reproductive Rights issue back into feminist and WGSS dialogue.

Proposal for a Roundtable on Workplace Bullying:
Do mean girls and bully boys grow up to be abusers in the workplace?

Mary Beth Nelson
Co- Coordinator
Connecticut Healthy Workplace Advocates
Long Abstract

Do school bullies, unchecked, grow up to be workplace bullies? Does the violence of early childhood manifest itself in adults, and if so, how?

Targets of bullying manifest the damage in a variety of ways, from low self-esteem to self-hurt to unimaginable violence. It is a complex phenomenon. This roundtable will discuss the following questions: Does gender play a role in the ways bullying occurs in school and at work? Is the extreme violence we witness too frequently a “male” problem? Who are the most likely targets? What role do the “observers” play in enabling bullies? What about parents, family, friends? Educators? And what are the policy solutions available to us? Do we need laws? Would careful mentoring help redirect young people at risk for becoming adult bullies? What role can women play in strengthening self-esteem and developing coping techniques for bullied children? Research will be made available, and materials for further study will be distributed.

On December 14, 2012, twenty first graders and six educators in Sandy Hook CT were killed by a 20-year-old man. Headlines blared that “evil” had visited this small town, as if “evil” dropped in just for the day. Maybe it’s easier to use a broad, difficult-to-target adjective to explain the inexplicable. Almost immediately the hand wringing set in. How could this have happened? What caused it? How can we prevent it from happening again? Sadly, the same conversations asking the same questions have been asked before, after Columbine, Virginia Tech, Aurora, Lancaster. Many workplaces, such as the beer distributorship in Manchester, CT or the Lottery in Newington, CT have also had shooters. The term “going postal” came from the rash of US Post office shootings. People have posited various causes, from mental health problems to the easy access to guns. Many of the shooters committed suicide, leaving investigators to sift through records and interviews, trying to find the cause, the trigger.
The picture most often shown of the Newtown shooter was that of a wild-eyed freak. Evil, personified. Not like anyone we knew. A picture that inspired revulsion. Nothing here that suggests any communal guilt or responsibility, and certainly nothing we could have prevented. Nor can be prevented in the future. Who can predict or manage “evil”?

Except...there was another picture. Of the shooter as a kindergartener, dressed in camo, but with the face of an innocent, small child, at an age comparable to his youngest victims. The story covered his grammar school years and the fact that he had been bullied to the point that his mother took to sitting in the back of his classroom to protect him. The bullying never ceased and she finally withdrew him from school.
Bullying damages people. Some people more than others. Unlike physical abuse, the damage is internal, not visible and obvious to the casual observer. They internalize the experience and the harmful messages, come to believe they deserve it and come to believe they are inadequate, incapable. Others shy away from people and become anti-social. Too many people kill themselves, destroying their own lives and the lives of those who loved them. And some kill others as the result of a final, deadly break with reality.

Who gets bullied? Anyone who’s perceived as different, weaker. Race, gender, sexual orientation, religion and ethnicity are just some of the differences the bullying is based on. It can be the way someone walks, talks, where they were born, brought up. Who bullies? The bullies often have their own self-esteem issues and build themselves up by attacking others. And the cycle gets perpetuated by the bystanders, too afraid to defend the bullies for fear of being bullied themselves.
Bullied children suffer emotionally, socially and physically. They find it harder to make friends, furthering isolating themselves. Their performance in school may suffer and they may get caught up in using drugs or alcohol as a panacea. Their physical health suffers. They may develop depression and suicidal tendencies. It is estimated that bullied teenagers are 2-9 times more likely to commit suicide. The 24/7 assault that is cyber bullying means these children have no escape from relentless bullies.
Various studies show that as bullied kids grow into adults, they may continue to struggle with self-esteem, have difficulty developing and maintaining relationships and avoid social interactions. They also may have a hard time trusting people, which can impact their personal relationships and their work relationships. Workplace bullying is estimated to cost businesses $180M in lost work time and productivity.

We as a society need to address and stop this deadly scourge. In schools, in the workplace, in the home. It’s everyone’s responsibility because the effects impact us all, even if we ourselves were neither bullies nor bullied. “All it takes for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing.”

Theorizing the Celebrity News Fix

Vivian B. Martin, Dept. Journalism,
Central Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

Avid consumers of celebrity news often describe such content as their “guilty pleasure” or “fix.” The consumption of celebrity news often helps people, particularly women, make emotional transitions throughout the day. As interviews, surveys and tracking of discourse at celebrity news sites reveal, celebrity news facilitates emotional ventilation, which both stimulates and calms as people move through daily routines. Consumers do find cause for refection and inspiration in news reports of certain celebrities, but celebrity news fans are not necessarily the same people who frequent fan sites dedicated to celebrities. The mocking point of view of celebrity news shows like TMZ have helped make mockery of celebrities and the celebrity news genre part of the emotional venting and meaning-making of the celebrity news fix. The paper also addresses how gendered attributes of celebrity news have kept scholars and journalists from examining what celebrity news engagement might have in common with consumption of other news genres.

Gender and Type 1 Credit Rationing of Small Businesses in the U. S.

Naranchimeg Mijid, Economics,
Central Connecticut State University
Short Abstract

This paper explores Type 1 credit rationing by gender using the four Surveys of Small Business Finances. Type 1 credit rationing occurs when a borrower receives a smaller loan amount than requested. We use a unique measure of Type 1 credit rationing to examine whether there exists gender discrimination in the small business lending. Our preliminary results show that women are not likely to be Type 1 rationed. However, when we looked at newer firms, women-owned firms receive significantly lower loan amounts than requested compared to men. We also find that less experienced women receive significantly lower loan amounts in terms of percentage when compared to less experienced men.

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